Linux中使用screen管理远程会话

Stupig posted @ 2010年7月26日 07:42 in Linux with tags 会话 screen linux , 7367 阅读

  你是不是经常需要ssh或者telent远程登录到Linux服务器?你是不是经常为一些长时间运行的任务而头疼,比如系统备份、ftp传输等等。通常情况下我们都是为每一个这样的任务开一个远程终端窗口,因为他们执行的时间太长了。必须等待它执行完毕,在此期间可不能关掉窗口或者断开连接,否则这个任务就会被杀掉,一切半途而废了。还在用nohup吗?那么来看看screen吧,它会给你一个惊喜!

  元凶:SIGHUP信号

  让我们来看看为什么关掉窗口/断开连接会使得正在运行的程序死掉。

  在Linux/Unix中,有这样几个概念:

  • 进程组(process group):一个或多个进程的集合,每一个进程组有唯一一个进程组ID,即进程组长进程的ID。
  • 会话期(session):一个或多个进程组的集合,有唯一一个会话期首进程(session leader)。会话期ID为首进程的ID。
  • 会话期可以有一个单独的控制终端(controlling terminal)。与控制终端连接的会话期首进程叫做控制进程(controlling process)。当前与终端交互的进程称为前台进程组。其余进程组称为后台进程组。

  根据POSIX.1定义:

  • 挂断信号(SIGHUP)默认的动作是终止程序。
  • 当终端接口检测到网络连接断开,将挂断信号发送给控制进程(会话期首进程)。
  • 如果会话期首进程终止,则该信号发送到该会话期前台进程组。
  • 一个进程退出导致一个孤儿进程组中产生时,如果任意一个孤儿进程组进程处于STOP状态,发送SIGHUP和SIGCONT信号到该进程组中所有进程。

  因此当网络断开或终端窗口关闭后,控制进程收到SIGHUP信号退出,会导致该会话期内其他进程退出。

  我们来看一个例子。打开两个ssh终端窗口,在其中一个运行top命令:

$ top

  在另一个终端窗口,找到top的进程ID为5180,其父进程ID为5128,即登录shell。

$ ps -ef|grep top
root      5180  5128  0 01:03 pts/0    00:00:02 top
root      5857  3672  0 01:12 pts/2    00:00:00 grep top

  使用pstree命令可以更清楚地看到这个关系:

$ pstree -H 5180|grep top
|-sshd-+-sshd---bash---top

  使用ps-xj命令可以看到,登录shell(PID 5128)和top在同一个会话期,shell为会话期首进程,所在进程组PGID为5128,top所在进程组PGID为5180,为前台进程组。

$ ps -xj|grep 5128
5126  5128  5128  5128 pts/0     5180 S        0   0:00 -bash
5128  5180  5180  5128 pts/0     5180 S        0   0:50 top
3672 18095 18094  3672 pts/2    18094 S        0   0:00 grep 5128

  关闭第一个ssh窗口,在另一个窗口中可以看到top也被杀掉了。

$ ps -ef|grep 5128
root     18699  3672  0 04:35 pts/2    00:00:00 grep 5128

  如果我们可以忽略SIGHUP信号,关掉窗口应该就不会影响程序的运行了。nohup命令可以达到这个目的,如果程序的标准输出/标准错误是终端,nohup默认将其重定向到nohup.out文件。值得注意的是nohup命令只是使得程序忽略SIGHUP信号,还需要使用标记&把它放在后台运行。

$ nohup <command> [arguments] &

  虽然nohup很容易使用,但还是比较"简陋"的,对于简单的命令能够应付过来,对于复杂的需要人机交互的任务就麻烦了。

  其实我们可以使用一个更为强大的实用程序screen。流行的Linux发行版(例如Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4)通常会自带screen实用程序,如果没有的话,可以从GNU screen的官方网站下载。

$ rpm -qa|grep screen
xscreensaver-4.18-5.rhel4.11
screen-4.0.2-5

  开始使用screen

  简单来说,screen是一个可以在多个进程之间多路复用一个物理终端的窗口管理器。screen中有会话的概念,用户可以在一个screen会话中创建多个screen窗口,在每一个screen窗口中就像操作一个真实的telnet/SSH连接窗口那样。在screen中创建一个新的窗口有这样几种方式:

  1.直接在命令行键入screen命令

$ screen

  screen将创建一个执行shell的全屏窗口。你可以执行任意shell程序,就像在ssh窗口中那样。在该窗口中键入exit退出该窗口,如果这是该screen会话的唯一窗口,该screen会话退出,否则screen自动切换到前一个窗口。

  2.Screen命令后跟你要执行的程序。

$ screen vi test.c

  screen创建一个执行vi test.c的单窗口会话,退出vi将退出该窗口/会话。

  3.以上两种方式都创建新的screen会话。我们还可以在一个已有screen会话中创建新的窗口。在当前screen窗口中键入C-a c,即Ctrl键+a键,之后再按下c键,screen 在该会话内生成一个新的窗口并切换到该窗口。

  screen还有更高级的功能。你可以不中断screen窗口中程序的运行而暂时断开(detach)screen会话,并在随后时间重新连接(attach)该会话,重新控制各窗口中运行的程序。例如,我们打开一个screen窗口编辑/tmp/abc文件:

$ screen vi /tmp/abc

  之后我们想暂时退出做点别的事情,比如出去散散步,那么在screen窗口键入C-a d(暂时中断会话),screen会给出detached提示:

  半个小时之后回来了,找到该screen会话:

$ screen -ls
There is a screen on:
        16582.pts-1.tivf06      (Detached)
1 Socket in /tmp/screens/S-root.

  重新连接会话:

$ screen -r 16582

  看看出现什么了,太棒了,一切都在。继续干吧。

  你可能注意到给screen发送命令使用了特殊的键组合C-a。这是因为我们在键盘上键入的信息是直接发送给当前screen窗口,必须用其他方式向screen窗口管理器发出命令,默认情况下,screen接收以C-a开始的命令。这种命令形式在screen中叫做键绑定(key binding),C-a叫做命令字符(command character)。

  可以通过C-a ?来查看所有的键绑定,常用的键绑定有: 

  screen常用选项

  使用键绑定C-a ?命令可以看到, 默认的命令字符(Command key)为C-a,转义C-a(literal ^a)的字符为a:

  因为screen把C-a看作是screen命令的开始,所以如果你想要screen窗口接收到C-a字符,就要输入C-a a。screen也允许你使用-e选项设置自己的命令字符和转义字符,其格式为:

  -exy x为命令字符,y为转义命令字符的字符。

  下面命令启动的screen会话指定了命令字符为C-t,转义C-t的字符为t,通过C-t ?命令可以看到该变化:

$ screen -e^tt

  其他常用的命令选项有:

  下例显示当前有两个处于detached状态的screen会话,你可以使用screen -r <screen_pid>重新连接上:

$ screen –ls
There are screens on:
        8736.pts-1.tivf18       (Detached)
        8462.pts-0.tivf18       (Detached)
2 Sockets in /root/.screen.
$ screen –r 8736

  如果由于某种原因其中一个会话死掉了(例如人为杀掉该会话),这时screen -list会显示该会话为dead状态。使用screen -wipe命令清除该会话:

$ kill -9 8462
$ screen -ls  
There are screens on:
        8736.pts-1.tivf18       (Detached)
        8462.pts-0.tivf18       (Dead ???)
Remove dead screens with 'screen -wipe'.
2 Sockets in /root/.screen.

$ screen -wipe
There are screens on:
        8736.pts-1.tivf18       (Detached)
        8462.pts-0.tivf18       (Removed)
1 socket wiped out.
1 Socket in /root/.screen.

$ screen -ls  
There is a screen on:
        8736.pts-1.tivf18       (Detached)
1 Socket in /root/.screen.

  -d –m 选项是一对很有意思的搭档。他们启动一个开始就处于断开模式的会话。你可以在随后需要的时候连接上该会话。有时候这是一个很有用的功能,比如我们可以使用它调试后台程序。该选项一个更常用的搭配是:-dmS sessionname

  启动一个初始状态断开的screen会话:

$ screen -dmS mygdb gdb execlp_test

  连接该会话:

$ screen -r mygdb

  管理你的远程会话

  先来看看如何使用screen解决SIGHUP问题,比如现在我们要ftp传输一个大文件。如果按老的办法,ssh登录到系统,直接ftp命令开始传输,之后。。如果网络速度还可以,恭喜你,不用等太长时间了;如果网络不好,老老实实等着吧,只能传输完毕再断开ssh连接了。让我们使用screen来试试。

  ssh登录到系统,在命令行键入screen:

$ screen

  在screen shell窗口中输入ftp命令,登录,开始传输。不愿意等了?OK,在窗口中键入C-a d:

  然后退出ssh登录。随你怎样,只要别杀掉screen会话。

  是不是很方便?更进一步,其实我们可以利用screen这种功能来管理你的远程会话,保存你所有的工作内容。你是不是每次登录到系统都要开很多窗口,然后每天都要重复打开关闭这些窗口?让screen来帮你“保存”吧,你只需要打开一个ssh窗口,创建需要的screen窗口,退出的时候C-a d“保存”你的工作,下次登录后直接screen -r <screen_pid>就可以了。

  最好能给每个窗口起一个名字,这样好记些。使用C-a A给窗口起名字。使用C-a w可以看到这些窗口名字,可能名字出现的位置不同。

  使用putty:

  使用telnet:

  更多screen功能

  screen提供了丰富强大的定制功能。你可以在screen的默认两级配置文件/etc/screenrc和$HOME/.screenrc中指定更多,例如设定screen选项,定制绑定键,设定screen会话自启动窗口,启用多用户模式,定制用户访问权限控制等等。如果你愿意的话,也可以自己指定screen配置文件。

  以多用户功能为例,screen默认是以单用户模式运行的,你需要在配置文件中指定multiuser on 来打开多用户模式,通过acl*(acladd,acldel,aclchg...)命令,你可以灵活配置其他用户访问你的screen会话。更多配置文件内容请参考screen的man页。

Avatar_small
Garfileo 说:
2010年7月28日 19:17

把这篇文章的总分类归至“linuxgem” 里吧,在文章编辑页面的左侧有选项

Avatar_small
Stupig 说:
2010年7月30日 05:08

好吧,我承认发表文章时是专门在右边选择"无"的。不过既然你说了,那就归到LinuxGem了撒

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